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Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was born as Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark on 10 June 1921, and he died on 9 April 2021. Prince Philip was a member of the British royal family as the husband of Elizabeth II.
Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was eighteen months old.
After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the then thirteen-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War, he served with distinction in the Mediterranean and Pacific Fleets.
After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish titles and styles, became a naturalized British subject, and adopted his maternal grandparents’ surname Mountbatten.
He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Before the wedding, he was granted the style His Royal Highness and created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich by King George VI.
Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the commander’s rank and was made a British prince in 1957. Prince Philip had four children with Elizabeth: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, which has also been used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Anne, Andrew, and Edward.
A sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He was a patron, president, or member of over 780 organizations, and he served as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award, a self-improvement program for young people aged 14 to 24.
Prince Philip was the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the longest-lived male member of the British royal family.
Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at aged 96. The late Prince Philip completed 22,219 solo engagements and 5,493 speeches since 1952.
Philip died two months before his 100th birthday.